Did you know human activities in agriculture and landfills produce 43 billion tons of carbon dioxide each year and directly impacts climate change? 

It’s no coincidence that human progress toward industrialization and presence on Earth has lost the lives of blissful creatures while also imposing a substantial threat to human life.

The loss of glaciers is a proven sign that the arctic is melting, wildfires are increasing, and warming of the seas is more frequent. 

According to NOAA’s 2020 annual report, the land and the ocean combined temperature has increased an average rate of 0.13 degrees Fahrenheit per decade since 1880.

It raises a question on what countries are doing in this prime limelight to control climate change? 

On December 12, 2015, an agreement was brought upon by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Paris Agreement, approved at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP 21), marks a historic turning point for global climate action after international leaders reached an agreement on a treaty containing 195 nations’ obligations to tackle climate change and adapt to its effects.

The Paris Agreement’s primary goal is to enhance the global response to climate change by keeping global temperature upsurge this century below 2 degrees Celsius over pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to keep it even lower at 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Table of Contents

Act on Climate Change by different countries

Let’s take a peek at the initiation some countries have done to reduce climate change in 2021. 


Copenhagen, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark (source)

One of the leading countries in climate change Denmark’s goal or target is to keep the average global temperature rise well below two °C compared to pre-industrial levels intended to limit the temperature rise to 1.5 °C. The E.U. reduction target for 2030: at least a 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions relative to a 1990 baseline.

Denmark has set various energy and transportation goals, including the phase-out of coal for power generation by 2030. The Danish Energy Agency can meet Danish estimates without new initiatives in its most recent Baseline Projection.

Here’s a peak on Denmark’s initiation towards a green transition towards climate change: 

Innovative and beneficial climate action

Denmark has reduced greenhouse emissions, affordable technology such as solar cells, offshore and wind batteries, and renewable energy. According to the climate change act in Denmark, limiting technological processes in the market serves as a massive getaway for a sustainable economy. 

The costs associated with implementing measures can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to achieving the 70% reduction target by 2030. This minimization ensures society will benefit from the positive climate effects of a reduction effort.

Green research Strategy

With the aim for future green solutions, Denmark has made it a target to initiate technological innovation. The strategy recognizes the most promising research needs and opportunities for the green transition in several sectors and areas, such as developing existing green technology and more innovative research.

Recycling and reduction of plastic waste

The reductions outlined in the Agreement on a Green Waste Sector and Circular Economy, technologies and solutions that improve the quality of reuse and reduce material loss, as well as sorting, reprocessing, and reuse of plastic-containing textiles, are estimated to save approximately 53,000 tons of plastic and fossil textile waste. 

These efforts on recycling plastic goods and sorting them promote being more sustainable. The development of recyclable plastic goods ensures use in an environmentally friendly manner while also reducing chemical composition.


Stockholm, Sweden
Stockholm, Sweden (source)

Sweden is well known for its landscape and undeveloped wilderness and archipelagoes, stretching from the European mainland to the Arctic. So, safeguarding it against climate and global warming is its priority. 

Being the country to rank the highest on improving climate change, Sweden has achieved and maintained the milestone target by 2020 emissions are to be 40 percent lower than 1990. 

Some of the initiations taken by Sweden to preserve the climate are as follows:

Ambitious sustainability targets

The production of greenhouse gases and omissions has hampered and increased climate change and is one of the most dangerous problems on global sustainability. Hence, the Swedish government has taken an enormous step by going fossil-free by 2045 with 100% renewable energy for a sustainable future.

Actions to cut greenhouse emissions in the transportation sector

Domestic transportation is responsible for a third of all greenhouse gas emissions in Sweden. Road traffic and mainly cars are one of the sources of emissions. 

To tackle these initiatives on the sustainable economy, such as alternative fuels, including electrification, sustainable renewable power, and energy-efficient climate-smart vehicles and ships are in the works to cut greenhouse emissions gases. 

Sustainable renewable fuels

The milestone target for domestic transportation by 2030, the net-zero aims by 2045, will necessitate widespread electrification and a shift to renewable and long-term fuels. 

Therefore, Sweden’s attempt to slowly use biofuels and electricity will help in the reduction of greenhouse emissions and will bring more sustainable renewable energies for a sustainable economy. 

Changing consumer behavior

This approach focuses on consumers and their business as if things have to be discarded and can recycle items. The key to sustainable development also depends on consumers’ behavior towards consuming and modifying their consumption means. 

It means that each product has a defined life cycle, and buyers become users rather than product owners. The Swedish government’s annual address to parliament in 2015 included the circular economy.

Transmission to renewable energy in Industries

The use of fossil fuels on energy consumption to run industries is a must. But the use of this promotes more carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. A solution to this by the Swedish government is to transform the industrial use of fossil fuels towards renewable energy. 

The energy sources range from electricity, introduce technologies for carbon capture and storage (CCS), capable of reducing both fuel-related and process-related emissions.

The United Kingdom (U.K.)

London, United Kingdom
London, United Kingdom (source)

As Prime Minister Boris Johnson said: “We want to continue to raise the bar on tackling climate change, and that’s why we’re setting the most ambitious target to cut emissions in the world.”

By the end of June 2021, the new objective will be established in law, with legislation outlining the U.K. government’s pledges being presented before Parliament on Wednesday, April 21.

  • The British government has taken a crucial step in the climate change act to cut greenhouse emissions by 80% by 2030. However, the government changed the amendment in 2019 to reach net-zero emissions (100 percent) by 2050.
  • Improvements in energy efficiency and the transition to low-carbon fuels for heating and transportation are being made. It entails a shift away from coal and gas-fired power in favor of renewable energy, nuclear power, and the deployment of carbon-capture technologies.
  • The U.K. economy has increased by roughly 75% since 1990, while greenhouse gas emissions have decreased by 44%. According to research, the U.K.’s economic performance has not been hampered by acting on climate change earlier than in other countries. 

Instead, the government can lead and set examples on the road to a low-carbon future by dominating markets for innovative, less-polluting products.


Mumbai, India
Mumbai, India (source)

Given that India has one of the world’s largest economies providing the energy required to keep up with this tremendous growth is significant. Of India’s more than one billion population, more than 800 million people (79.9 percent) still subsist on less than the U.S. $2 per day. 

More than 400 million people still don’t have access to electricity. Seven hundred million people in India still cook with agricultural waste and animal dung on traditional cookstoves. 

Here are some of India’s contributions to sustainable and global climate change are as follows:

Sustainability of carbon emissions

India has taken a massive step towards the reduction of carbon emissions even before developed countries. As developed countries use more processed and packed foods, Indian culture gravitates towards more fresh produce, limiting carbon emissions.

Use of three R’s (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle

In Indian culture, recycling goods is a must, which showcases that India is ahead of developing countries such as Japan. Stripped bare of recyclables, India’s approach towards it is more on recycling kitchen waste towards compost rather than dumping it on landfills.

Reforming Energy Markets

 (Electricity Act 2005, Tariff Policy 2003, Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006, etc.):

  1. Remove entry barriers in exploration, extraction, conversion, transmission, and primary and secondary energy distribution. 
  2. Institute price reform and tax reforms to promote optimal fuel choices. 
  3. Provide feed-in tariffs for renewable energy like solar, wind, and biomass.
  4. Strengthening or introducing independent regulation.

New and Renewable Energy Policy, 2005

The policy promotes the adoption of sustainable and renewable energy sources. It facilitates the speedy deployment of renewable technology through indigenous design, development, and manufacturing. 

Environment Conclave: Revival, Regeneration, and Conservation of Nature:

As soon as schools shut due to the Covid pandemic reopen, his ministry will initiate a nursery program in 5,000 schools

Students in grades six to eight will plant saplings and care for them until they graduate from high school, according to Javadekar. “This will instill in them a habit of caring for plants, bring discipline, and aid in the production of much-needed oxygen” (O2). It will also be introduced in IITs (Indian Institutes of Technology) and other higher education institutes soon.”

United States of America (USA)

New York City, USA
New York City, USA (source)

The world is witnessing the dangers of climate change, and the United States is ranked last in the world for climate change action; let’s take a look at the efforts made to uphold the recent climate crisis:

Launching a green government initiation

As greenhouse gas emissions mix in the global atmosphere and oceans, emissions in one region impact the climate in all parts of the world. It is a launch for proper sustainable governance to foster and inspire a global “race to the top” of government efforts toward achieving Pa’s purposes by coordinating our national priorities and collaborating on common goals.

Hence, clean energy jobs and creating a more resilient prospect on the green energy movement

Launching a global climate initiative

The U.S. government is working with developing countries to build strategic policies on climate movement and build zero emissions and a climate-resilient future. Stopping global deforestation and restoring forests and other ecosystems are crucial steps toward achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.

Initiation of Climate Summit, 2021

Workers and enterprises in the United States will lead a clean energy revolution that will see the country reach a carbon-free power sector by 2035 and put the country on an irreversible path to a net-zero economy by 2050. 

Reduction of carbon emissions from forest and agriculture

Programs and measures for the solution of forest-based and agriculture to reduce carbon emissions are being launched. This program aims to accelerate agriculture and food system innovation and research and development to promote low-carbon growth and improve food security. 

Address carbon pollution from industrial processes

The solution to address this is carbon capture and adding new hydrogen sources produced from renewable energy, nuclear energy, or waste to industrial power facilities. The government may utilize its purchasing power to assist these low- and zero-carbon industrial items in getting off to a strong start.

Wrapping Up

We can see that global leaders have taken an enormous step and invested millions of money in preserving the climate and for the next generation to view the environment in an evergreen domain. It shows how serious this problem is and is an excellent example of the positive initiatives taken by different countries to sustain the Earth and their country. 

(Last Updated on September 28, 2021 by Sadrish Dabadi)

Thinley Doma Ghale holds a Bachelor’s degree in Social Work from Kathmandu University. She enjoys writing articles on climate change animals and loves to travel and experience new ideas, places, meeting people, and learning from them. As a social science student, research has always been her area of interest.