COP 1 – COP 25: What Did We Achieve Till Now?

COP1 - COP25

Conference of Parties as a stand for COP is one of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decision-making bodies.

To date, a total of 25 COPs have been organized so far. COP 26 is to be held in Glasgow, Scotland, from 31 October to 11 November 2021. This article is critically focused on the achievements of the countries regarding COP.

Since climate change has become a massive concern among the nations, the establishment of the Conference of Parties seems of utmost necessity.

One hundred ninety-seven countries have become members of COP that have signed UNFCCC (United Nations Convention on the Climate Change).

Climate change has created negative influences covering broad sectors such as agriculture, forestry, grassland, water, and many more.

No country is under an exception to the effects induced by climate change. Several achievements have been gained from COP 1 to COP 25 so far.

During COP, the emission inventories and the national communications are reviewed throughout the globe.

Achievements from COP 1-COP 25


During COP 1 in Berlin, Germany, 1995, all the signatories’ countries agreed to meet annually and discuss the topic of global warming and greenhouse gases.

It sought the countries’ ability to fulfill the commitment of the scientific and technological advice and implementation to be worked jointly throughout the globe.


COP 2, launched in Geneva, Switzerland, 1995, received several achievements through discussion on the financial resources and mechanisms, technical assistance, and the practical evaluation regarding the Persistent Organic Pollution (POPs) and their implementation. It aimed to reduce the level of POPs in the environment.

COP 3 (Kyoto Protocol)

Kyoto protocol - COP acheivements
Kyoto Protocol (source)

The establishment of the Kyoto protocol in COP 3 in Kyoto, Japan, urged to minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases basically in the industrialized nations. COP 3 led the discussion on the climate market.


During COP 4 held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1998, the talk decided to establish the mechanism to implement the Kyoto protocol by 2000.


COP 5 in Bonn, Germany, focused on adopting the guidelines regarding the preparation of the national communication by the developed countries and sharing the technologies between the countries so far.


Likewise, COP 6, organized in Hague, Netherland, prioritized implementing the Kyoto protocol mechanism except for the United States, limiting the observatory phase.


Talks were related to implementing the Kyoto protocol, Marrakesh Accords, in COP 7 organized in Marrakech, Morocco.

COP 8 and COP 9

COP 8 in New Delhi, 2002 focused on transferring the technology to developed countries. The discussion led to adopting the emission reporting guidelines based on IPCC and the development of the Special Climate Change Fund and Least Developed Countries Fund during COP 9 in Milan, Italy. 

COP 10

COP 10 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, achieved fruitful discussion and implementation regarding land use and its change, forestry, transfer of technologies, capacity building, and the needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

COP 11

COP 11, organized in Montreal, Canada, addressed the issues related to capacity building, severe impacts of climate change in the developing and the least developed countries.

COP 12

Climate fund - COP achievements
Climate fund update for East Asia (source)

During COP 12 in Nairobi, Kenya, it remained fruitful in reviewing the financial mechanism and the discussion regarding the Special Climate Change Fund.

COP 13

The COP 13, launched in Bali, Indonesia, targeted establishing the Bali roadmaps that set the timetable to negotiate on the topic related to climate change.

It did replace the Kyoto protocol and included all the nations, not only the developed countries, which emit more greenhouse gases.

It’s a matter of pride that all the countries were together to halt the issues of the effects of climate change.

COP 14

During COP 14 held in Poznan, Poland, the talk was regarding financing the mechanism to assist the developing countries in adapting to tackle the climate change impacts and what would succeed in implementing the Kyoto protocol.  

COP 15

The COP 15, commenced in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2009, remained very fruitful. This COP is considered one of the milestones in the history of the international climate conference.

This conference aimed to reach the temperature of the Earth’s surface by 2o Celsius. To sum up, the developed countries agreed to support the climatic funding to the developing countries for an extended period.

Until and unless the poorer and the developing countries do not receive funding from the developed countries, it’s sure that more challenging issues will be on the way to minimize the effects of global warming and climate change-induced severe impacts.

COP 16

The COP 16 in Cancun, Mexico, organized in the year 2010, focused on writing the commitments of the COP 15 agreements in the paper. No other country cannot carry out the activities as agreed in the Conference of Parties without the funding.

Thus, COP 16 targeted the establishment of the Green Climate Fund, especially for the developed countries to launch climate change actions.

After establishing the Green Climate Fund, the developed countries initiated creating funding for the climate change-induced effects.

To sum up, upon receiving the climatic financing from the developed countries, the developing countries can take action from the funding.

It assures a greener environment and may contribute to tackling the issues regarding climate change and the carbon trading mechanism.

It can minimize the effects of greenhouse gases by exploring several initiatives such as shifting towards cleaner and greener technology, i.e., alternative energy, reducing the emission from coal production through banning, promoting eco-friendly brands, and controlling the rate of deforestation and illegal logging.

These all practices can undoubtedly fulfill the commitments made in COP 15 to provide the Green Climate Funds.

COP 17

Talking about COP 17 organized in Doha, Qatar, 2011, all the nations did agree to reduce the emissions of green gases, which has entirely affected the whole world.

The United States and the emerging countries, including India, China, South Africa, and Brazil, seemed optimistic about reducing greenhouse gas effects.

China is one of the countries that use coal production at the maximum. In most parts of China, even today, the factories and industries use charcoal in large amounts, which is the severe cause of the emission of greenhouse gases.

It needs to minimize the effects of the harmful gases that emit into the atmosphere today. The discussion in COP 17 decided to negotiate the agreement that came into force in 2020.

Developed countries play a significant role in increasing the greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur, nitric oxide, and many more.  

COP 18

Numerous raised thoughts in the COP 18 organized in Doha, Qatar, 2018 targeted extending the Kyoto protocol until 2020.

Since the Kyoto protocol aims to reduce the effects of greenhouse gases, its extension might be very fruitful in tackling the climate change crisis so far.

Despite extending the Kyoto protocol, several countries did not support the extension. It entails countries such as Canada, Russia, China, and the United States. But it tackled the issues of global warming and climate issues to some extent.

COP 19

COP 19 in Warsaw, Poland, remained productive because a non-binding agreement among the countries decided to tackle the loss and damage issues and adopt the preservation of the forest throughout the globe.

COP 20

It might be not surprising that for the first time, all the countries got together and agreed to fulfill their commitment to minimizing the emission of greenhouse gases during COP 20, 2014 in Lima, Peru.

It feels glad that the world united and tackled the climate change crisis, one of today’s world’s dire and hot issues.

COP 21 (Paris Agreement)

Paris agreement - COP achievements
German protesters reminding temperature rise mark as per Paris agreement (source)

As we all are familiar with the term “Paris agreement” during COP 21 in 2015, the agreement was made between all the countries in Paris of France thus, named the Paris agreement.

The countries are facing huge impacts of global warming. The temperature is increasing day by day throughout the globe.

After 20 years of long-awaited negotiations and commitments, the Paris agreement aimed to maintain global warming below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times.

The further commitment to limiting the Earth’s temperature to 1.5 Degree Celsius looks pretty fruitful.

Furthermore, the significant achievements of the Paris agreement are the inclusion of political resilience, normalization of the temperature to 1.5o Celsius, shifting towards cleaner energy, normalization of the net-zero, i.e., net zero-emission, and many more.

The Paris agreement is inferred as the vital international climate agreement since it has announced a commitment to limit the Earth’sEarth’s temperature below 2o Celsius. Once the responsibility is implemented according to the setup plans, the globe can successfully achieve the targets of its missions.

During the Paris agreement, the signatory countries have raised their voice supporting the carbon-neutral actions.

In recent days, we can see that the countries such as Sweden, Norway, Japan, Netherlands are shifting towards cleaner technology through electric vehicle systems, replacing the older technologies and heading towards the eco-friendly approach.

Even the electric battery recharging systems are familiar in Sweden and Norway, which cuts off the emissions of harmful gases in the air.

COP 22

After ratifying the Paris agreement by most countries, the deal was enforced in COP 22, Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2016. The negotiations include three documents.

These are Marrakech Action Proclamation in the middle of uncertainty resulted in the White House, the Marrakesh partnership, which provides for strengthening the climate negotiation till 2020, and the first meeting of the CMA (discussion of the parties to the Paris agreement), one of the Paris agreement decision body.

These three documents have played a very crucial role in shaping our commitment decisions.

COP 23

During the COP 23 launched in Bonn, Germany, in 2017 Paris Rulebook was established, which focuses on progressing the rulebook regarding the climate summit.

The central Talanoa dialogue created the opportunity to share the experiences to gain the agreed objectives.

The significant achievement of this dialogue in the COP 23 is it promoted the massive participation of the local, marginalized, and indigenous communities of various countries.

This approach has, without a doubt, ensuring women’s empowerment in the field of climate change-related issues.

During this COP, the other milestone being created was the establishment of the Gender Action Plan to assure the role and the participation of women in tackling the issues of climate change.

COP 24

Near the COP 24 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) published its report regarding the current situation of climate change throughout the world and the impacts of increment in the global temperature of 1.5o Celsius.

The COP 24, initiated in Katowice, Poland, in 2018, focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It reviewed the national climate plans of 2020 and implemented them based on the strategies accordingly.

COP 25

The COP 25, which was initiated in Madrid, Spain, in 2019, was the most significant milestone in climate change actions.

It fulfilled the commitment of the Green Climate Fund that USD 100 billion will be mobilized for 2020 and ensured the establishment of the new target for 2025.

It has been revealed that some investors have already initiated the action to target the various companies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

It’s pretty much apparent that COP 25 has a significant contribution in enforcing the Paris agreement in reality. The guidelines developed regarding the international carbon markets are mentioned in Article 6 of the Paris agreement.

Several sectors prioritized the adaptation of the climate change-induced effects and decarbonizing finance in the COP 25.

The announcement made that the European Union countries will lead the nation to zero greenhouse gas emission before the COP 26 to be organized in Glasgow, Scotland, from 31 October to 12 November 2021. This decision is the reflection of the healthier climate once implemented throughout the world.

Basically, during COP 25, the revision was made on how the Paris agreement will be implemented into practice so that every nation can combat the climate change-induced effects and head towards green technology.

Moreover, it raised awareness regarding the contribution of the food systems in addressing the climate change crisis and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Many scientists and climate researchers believe that COP 25 was a huge opportunity to focus on the Asian Development Banks (ADBs) Strategy 2030 and present the numerous projects and achievements of the ADB.

It can assist hugely in building partnerships among the various countries. The development of the financial mechanism focused on the loss and damage by the climate impacts in the COP 25, which seems vital when we need to tackle the climate change crisis.


As aforementioned, most of the Conference of Parties remained very productive because of the Paris agreement implemented within various countries.

Despite incomplete action in the climate change issues and the carbon trading, at least the commitment has been made, and gradually the countries are implementing it with discussion.

The Conference of Parties initiated in 1994 is considered a milestone when it yells about the climate change crisis and its product solutions.

The aim of the Conference of Parties entails stabilizing greenhouse gas at such a level that could prevent serious harm in the atmosphere and the living beings as a whole.

It’s of necessity to lead the actions according to the commitment being made during the Conference of Parties.

COP 26 is on the way to come. Every nation hopes that the negotiation on climate change and the commitment to the proposed actions will go side by side.

Such initiation can ensure the sustainability of the government and assist hugely in building the prospective future of every country in the coming days.