Serpents are among the most feared creatures on the earth. From Titanoboa (largest, extinct) to thread snakes (smallest), all are terrific and terrifying. But what concerns most are their venoms.
There are many types of venomous snakes worldwide that can cause severe bites in humans. Although not all snakes are venomous, some can create substantial issues.
These snakes have venom that they may inject through specialized fangs to subdue their victim. These venomous snakes are dreaded throughout the world.
Table of Contents
1. Inland Taipan
|Length (Max)||8.2 feet|
|Found In||Queesland and South Australia|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Parlysis, Kidney failure and Cardiac complications|
The inland taipan, also called the western taipan, small-scaled or tough snake is a highly venomous snake belonging to the Elapidae family.
Along with coastal taipans native to Australasia, taipans are enormous, fast-moving, and highly venomous. According to the median lethal dose value in mice, the inland taipan venom is significantly more poisonous than sea snakes.
When tested on human heart cell culture, it has the most toxic venom of any reptile. One bite is thought to be poisonous enough to kill at least 100 fully grown humans.
2. Dubois’ sea snake
|Name||Dobois sea snake|
|Length (Max)||3.6 feet|
|Found In||Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, Timor Sea, and Australian coasts|
|Venom Toxicity after bite|
Aipysurus Duboisii is a poisonous sea snake that is also known as the Dubois’ sea snake or the reef shallows sea snake.
Its geographic range encompasses Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, Timor Sea, and the western, eastern, and northern coasts of Australia.
These snakes grow up to 110 cm (3.6 feet) in length eat moray eels and other seafloor-dwelling creatures. They are moderately aggressive, meaning they will bite if provoked but not independently.
The venom yield is 0.43 mg, and the fangs are 1.8 mm long, short for a snake. It is the world’s most venomous sea snake and one of the top three most venomous snakes.
The acute toxicity of snake venom is traditionally assessed using laboratory animals and expressed as the median lethal dose (LD50), defined as the dose required to kill half of a population split by the weight of the tested animal.
3. Eastern brown snake
|Name||Eastern brown snake|
|Length (Max)||1.5 – 2 m|
|Found In||Australia, Papua new guinea|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Neurotoxin, procoagulant|
The common brown snake is one of Australia’s most distinctive snakes. These short, stocky snakes resemble Vipers.
However, Vipers do not exist in Australia. They usually have bronze, orange, or brown bars across their bodies. It is the world’s second-most poisonous land snake after the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus).
Eastern brown snake has caused around 60% of human snakebite deaths in Australia, due to its LD50 value (subcutaneous) in mice.
The World Health Organization organize it as a snake of medicinal relevance. Brown snakes, as a genus, were responsible for 41 percent of all snakebite victims in Australia between 2005 and 2015, as well as 15 of the 19 deaths.
Coagulopathy, hemorrhage (bleeding), cardiovascular collapse, and cardiac arrest are the significant consequences of its venom on the circulatory system.
The prothrombinase complex Pseutarin-C, which breaks down prothrombin, is one of the critical components of the venom.
4. Yellow-bellied sea snake
|Name||Yellow-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis platurus)|
|Length (Max)||35 inches|
|Found In||Tropical marine seas expect Atlantic Ocean|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Neurotoxins, isotoxins|
Except for the Atlantic Ocean, the yellow-bellied sea snake is a venomous species of snake belonging to the Hydrophiinae subfamily that can be found in tropical marine seas worldwide.
It was once thought to belong to the monotypic genus Pelamis, but recent DNA data suggests it belongs to the genus Hydrophis. The venom of this species, like that of other sea snakes, is potent.
The venom’s subcutaneous LD50 is 0.067 mg/kg, with a venom yield of 1.0–4.0 mg per bite. The venom of the yellow-bellied sea snake comprises several neurotoxins and two additional isotoxins.
5. Peron’s sea snake
|Name||Peron’s sea snake (Hydrophis Peronii)|
|Length (Max)||Upto 4 ft|
|Found In||Western tropical pacific ocean|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Neurotoxic|
Hydrophis Peronii, also known as the horned sea snake, Peron’s sea snake, or spiny-headed sea snake, is a poisonous snake belonging to the Hydrophiinae subfamily of the Elapidae family.
The species is only found in the western tropical Pacific Ocean, which is endemic. The neck of the spiny-headed sea snake is only one-third to two-fifths the diameter of the thickest region of the body, making it a medium-sized snake.
6. Coastal Taipan
|Name||Coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus)|
|Length (Max)||2m – 3.3m|
|Found In||Australia and Southern New Guinea|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Taicatoxin, a highly potent neurotoxin|
The coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus), sometimes known as the common taipan, is a highly venomous snake belonging to the Elapidae family.
The coastal taipan can be seen in various habitats, including monsoon woods, open woodland, and artificial habitats like sugarcane fields.
It primarily hunts and consumes small animals, with some bird prey thrown in for good measure. The species is oviparous, meaning it reproduces by laying eggs.
According to most toxicological investigations, this species, after the inland taipan and the eastern brown snake, is the world’s third most poisonous terrestrial snake.
Its venom is neurotoxic and coagulopathic in nature. The coastal taipan, which is more feared than any other Australian snake, is the world’s third most venomous terrestrial snake, after the inland taipan and the eastern brown snake.
They can inflict several bites and inject significant amounts of venom – up to 60 mg – in a matter of seconds.
7. Many-banded krait
|Name||Many-banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus)|
|Length (Max)||1 to 1.5 m|
|Found In||central and southern China well as Southeast Asia|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins|
The many-banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus), also called the Taiwanese krait or the Chinese krait, is a venomous elapid snake found throughout much of central and southern China well as Southeast Asia.
Many-banded krait is a black or bluish-black snake with uncountable white bands across its body, ranging in length from 1 to 1.5 m (3.5 to 5 ft). Throughout its geographic range, the many-banded krait prefers marshy places, though it lives in a variety of habitats.
Pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (such as bungarotoxins among others) are found in the venom of the many-banded krait; bungarotoxins account for nearly half of the venom’s protein content by weight.
The average venom production from snake farm specimens ranges from 4.6 mg to 19.4 mg.
8. Black-banded sea krait
|Name||Black-banded sea krait (Laticauda semifasciata)|
|Length (Max)||Male – 87.5 cm, Female – 1.42m|
|Found In||Western Pacific Oceans|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Neurotoxic|
The black-banded sea krait (Laticauda semifasciata), often known as the Chinese sea snake, is a poisonous snake belonging to the Laticaudinae subfamily of the Elapidae family. This sea snake likes to hang around near coral reefs. It has a small head, a thick trunk, and no visible neck.
The banded sea krait’s neurotoxic venom is ten times more robust than that of a rattlesnake, making it one of the most lethal organisms in our oceans. The venom targets the victim’s neurological system, causing convulsions, paralysis, heart failure, and death.
9. Beaked sea snake
|Name||Beaked sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa)|
|Found In||Tropical Indo-Pacific|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||neurotoxins and myotoxins.|
The beaked sea snake, also called the hook-nosed sea snake, common sea snake, or Valakadeyan sea snake, is a highly poisonous species of sea snake that wanders throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific.
This species is in charge of more than half of all sea snake bites and the majority of envenomings and fatalities. This species’ venom contains powerful neurotoxins and myotoxins.
The great majority of deaths from sea snake bites are caused by this widespread species (up to 90 percent of all sea snake bites).
10. Black tiger snake
|Name||Black Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus)|
|Length (Max)||1m approximately|
|Found In||southern Australia, including coastal islands ofTasmania|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||neurotoxins, coagulants, haemolysins, and mycotoxins|
Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) are large and highly venomous snakes of southern Australia, including its coastal islands and Tasmania.
Although the species can be quite diverse in appearance and patterning, these snakes are frequently observed and locally well known for their banding, which is black and yellow like a tiger.
Tiger snakes accounted for 17% of identified snakebite casualties in Australia between 2005 and 2015, with four deaths recorded from 119 confirmed envenomations.
Tiger snake venoms own potent neurotoxins, coagulants, haemolysins, and mycotoxins. Indication of a bite includes restricted pain in the neck region and foot, tingling, numbness, and sweating, followed by breathing difficulties and paralysis in a relatively short period. In a study, the mortality rate from untreated bites is reported to be between 40 and 60%.
11. Echis carinatus
|Length (Max)||38 – 80 cm|
|Found In||Central Asia and the Middle East|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||haemotoxic|
The venomous viper Echis carinatus is widespread in parts of Central Asia and the Middle East, especially the Indian subcontinent.
It is the tiniest of the four big snakes responsible for the bulk of snakebite cases and deaths due to many factors, including its frequent prevalence in highly populated regions and its unassuming look.
Echis carinatus generates about 18 mg of dry venom per gram of body weight on average, with a maximum of 72 mg.
It can shoot up to 12 mg, although an adult’s fatal dose is considered to be only 5 mg envenomation causes both local and systemic symptoms, the latter of which can be fatal.
Swelling and discomfort, which emerge minutes after a bite, are local symptoms. In difficult situations, the swelling can spread up the entire affected limb within 12–24 hours, resulting in blisters on the skin.
Individual specimens produce varying amounts of venom, as does the amount injected per bite. The fatality rate from their bites is around 20%, although deaths are currently uncommon due to the availability of antivenom.
12. Black Mamba
|Name||Black mamba (Dendroaspis Polylepis)|
|Length (Max)||2 – 4.3m|
|Found In||Sub-Saharan Africa|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||neurotoxins|
The venomous black mamba (Dendroaspis Polylepis) belongs to the Elapidae family of snakes. This species can be found in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa.
When threatened, the black mamba hisses open its inky-black jaws and stretch its short neck flap. It can strike from afar and administer a series of bites quickly.
Its venom is primarily composed of neurotoxins, which can cause symptoms in as little as 10 minutes and can be a death sentence if not treated with antivenom.
Despite its fearsome and aggressive reputation, the black mamba only attacks humans when threatened or cornered.
It is labeled as “least concern” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species.
13. King cobra
|Name||King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)|
|Length (Max)||3.18 to 4 meters|
|Found In||rainforests of Southern and Southeast Asia|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||Neurotoxin|
The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is a venomous elapid snake that is only found in the rainforests of Southern and Southeast Asia.
It is the only cobra in the genus Ophiophagus, distinguished from other cobras by its size and neck markings.
With an aggregate length of 3.18 to 4 meters, the king cobra is the world’s longest venomous snake (10.4 to 13.1 ft).
The poisons cause extreme pain, clouded vision, vertigo, lethargy, and eventually paralysis in the victim’s central nervous system.
If the envenomation is severe, the person will have cardiovascular collapse and slip into a coma.
Respiratory failure is the cause of death. Within 30 minutes of being envenomated, the victim can die.
14. Philippine Cobra
|Name||Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis)|
|Length (Max)||3.3 ft to 12 ft|
|Found In||Northern region of philippines|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||postsynaptic neurotoxin|
The Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis), commonly known as the philippine spitting cobra or northern Philippine cobra, is a stocky, highly poisonous spitting cobra confined to the Philippines’ northern areas.
In Tagalog, the Philippine cobra is known as ulupong, in Ilocano as carasaen, and in Cebuano as agwáson or banákon.
The venom of the Philippine cobra is a powerful postsynaptic neurotoxin that impairs respiratory function and can cause neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis because the neurotoxins bind to the neuromuscular junctions surrounding the muscles, interrupting nerve signal transmission.
According to research, its venom is primarily neurotoxic, with no prominent necrotizing components or cardiotoxins.
15. Russell’s viper
|Name||Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii)|
|Length (Max)||166 cm|
|Found In||Indian subcontinent|
|Venom Toxicity after bite||heterodimeric PLA2 neurotoxin|
The Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) is a poisonous snake belonging to the Viperidae family native to the Indian subcontinent. It is one of India’s four giant snakes.
The solenoglyphous dentition of this species delivers the venom. Individual specimens of D. Russelii produce a significant amount of venom.
Adult specimens yielded 130–250 mg, 150–250 mg, and 21–268 mg of venom, respectively. The venom production ranged from 8 to 79 mg for 13 juveniles with an average total length of 79 cm (31 in) (mean 45 mg).
That concludes the list of the world’s 15 most dangerous snakes. Does anything catch your eye? Have any of these snakes bitten you in the wild?
(Last Updated on May 17, 2022 by Sadrish Dabadi)